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Carthage Must Be Destroyed The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization characters ´ 107

read & download Ý eBook, PDF or Kindle ePUB ß Richard Miles

Its apotheosis as the greatest seapower in the Mediterranean And at the heart of the history of Carthage lies the Must Be Destroyed PDF #8608 extraordinary figure of Hannibal the scourge of Rome and one of the greatest military leaders but a man who also unwittingly led his people to catastroph. The author is a great scholar and very knowledgeable about his subject The book jacket indicates that he has even led archaeological digs in North Africa Perhaps that is part of the problem What I mean is that maybe those with a great love for archaeology should not write books like this one The title promises grand sweeping scope and the author gives us none of it He has an obvious love for the minute details He employs his considerable talents in mining though religious inscriptions dietary information and so one All of this could have been very useful if used in support of a grand theme But what we get is one thing after another Nowhere does he offer any kind of theory for the utter destruction of a once mighty civilization Was Carthage murdered or was it suicide Did they have an achilles heel that betrayed them or fall to hubris or something anything at all Here again there is a lot of information but almost no penetrating analysis Suddenly they are no and there are no real lessons to be learnedIf you have a great interest in certain key details about Carthage I would pick up the book and mine the index Again a few points are illuminating on a smaller scale I had no idea for example of the religious battle that took place during the 2nd Punic War as Hannibal tried to appropriate Hercules and the grand theme of Greek resistance to barbarians The origins of Carthage as it related to Assyrian conuest was also good Given his knowledge the book remains uite frustrating He needed a poet to come alongside

read & download Carthage Must Be Destroyed The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization

Carthage Must Be Destroyed The Rise and Fall of an Ancient CivilizationThis book is the first full scale history Be Destroyed PDF #10003 of Carthage in decades The devastating struggle to the death between the Carthaginians and the Romans was one of the defining dramas of the ancient world In an epic series of land and sea battles both sides came close to victory. A history of Carthage Insofar as it can be reconstructedNot only were there no Carthaginian histories to survive there is the interesting history of the Greek and Roman histories where the best source may be reconstructed from the uotations taken from another work which also did not survive but drew heavily on the original source There is also some archaeological evidence Carthaginian inscriptions give brief accounts and other information can be pieced together The optimistic claim of early archaeologists that the claims of sacrificing children were false was too optimistic Considerably evidence for it has turned up include inscriptions that carefully state that the child offered was actually the offspring of the person sacrificing the childThis gets discussed across its history covering its wars its colonies its government insofar as it can be discerned its religion and its interactions with Rome and with other forces allied with one or the other or shifting between The period of the Punic Wars gets covered most thoroughly of course because of the most records including the peaces between with the Mercenaries WarIt covers the campaigns the battles with discussion enough of strategy to show how they were won and the side effectsEverything from the details such as the Carthaginians first coined money to pay off mercenaries in Sicily to the intense efforts of both sides in the Punic War to claim religious sanction and the other side's impiety Hercules was of particular importance and the road he took driving Geryon's cattle was fraught with significance A general whose first act on appointment was to try to counteract the frantic superstitious practice of unauthorized sacrifices and divination by consulting the Sibylline books I found the treatment of RomanGreekCarthaginian syncretism particularly interesting because of my interests in the area; it's very well done

Richard Miles ß 7 read

Carthage Must Be Destroyed The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization characters ´ 107 É [PDF / Epub] ☃ Carthage Must Be Destroyed The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization By Richard Miles – This book is the first full scale history of Carthage in decaBefore the Carthaginians finally succumbed and Carthage Must PDF or their capital city history and culture were almost utterly erased Drawing on a wealth of new archaeological research Richard Miles brings to life this lost empire from its origins among the Phoenician settlements of Lebanon to. Finished reading Carthage Must Be Destroyed by Richard MilesWhenever I read a history of a fallen empire I am always sad at the end Read a history of the fall of the Roman Empire last year and I kept rooting for the Romans to pull it together They didn’t I felt very sad reading about the fall of Carthage So unnecessaryBut I did learn a lotCarthage was a colony of Tyre a Phoenician island city off the coast of LebanonThe Phoenicians were tremendous mariners and to a certain extent seeded civilization around the Mediterranean They established colonies and trading posts in Egypt Cyprus Greece North Africa Corsica Sardinia Sicily France the Balearics and Spain They settled the Atlantic coasts of Spain Portugal and Morrocco They circumnavigated Africa and sailed to Britain They traded with India and Sri Lanka and visited AustraliaThe two oldest cities in western Europe continuously habitated are Lisbon and Cadiz in Spain – both getting their start around 1200 BC Both Phoenician colonies thousands of miles from LebanonThe author spends a lot of time discussing the religion of the Mediterranean peoples including Greeks Phoenicians and Romans – and in particular the worship of Heracles All of these people tried to claim him as their own in order to justify a land grab The Romans also had a peculiar habit of performing a ritual called evocatio where they would try to steal an enemy’s gods and make them their own – even setting up shrines to them This way they could loot and pillage temples without being accused of sacrilegeCarthage was founded 814 BC and stayed loyal to its mother city for centuries sending tribute and temple offerings When Tyre resisted Alexander the Great and was besieged he captured a delegation from Carthage They were released with the warning that Carthage was next – after he conuered AsiaThe Carthaginians were always tangling with somebody and had a lot of interesting wars and alliances They fought a war against Marseilles a Greek colony on the Riviera They fought a war with Sparta The were allied with Xerxes during his invasion of Greece They were allied with the Etruscans against some of the Greek coloniesThey fought a war that lasted centuries against Syracuse – another Greek colony and the largest city in Sicily over who owned Sicily These wars swung in both directions and were ultimately a stalemateThey were allied with the Romans against Pyrrhus from Epirus modern Albania Pyrrhus was a hell of a general and invaded Italy Sicily and Africa The war was a near thing but Roman perseverance wore him down This was how Rome acuired southern Italy and directly preceded the First Punic WarThe First Punic War was a slugfest that lasted 24 years In the end Roman perseverance paid off and they took over Sicily Carthage then had to fight its own army in the Mercenary War for another three yearsFor the next generation the Barcid clan works on rebuilding their empire in Spain Finally Hannibal is placed in charge of the army and takes out Saguntum a Roman ally The Second Punic War beginsBeyond a doubt this is my favorite Punic War Hannibal is such an engaging hero Raised to hate Rome and as a soldier his feats were astounding Operating constantly in hostile territory he overcomes all difficulties He crosses the Pyrenees with elephants He forces a crossing of the Rhone with elephants with hostile Celts in front and a Roman army behind him His army disappears into the Alps with winter coming on In an epic journey he takes his army on a northern route with elephants and triumphs over ambushes and the Alps At the top he shows his army a panoramic vision of the Po Valley and all the riches that await themThe Romans are shocked when a Carthaginian army appears in northern Italy and Hannibal mops the floor with the first army they send against him Then he ambushes a much larger army at Lake Trasimene and destroys itFinally a year later comes the Battle of Cannae his masterpiece His much smaller army faces a Roman army of 80000 – the largest army they’ve ever assembled They are commanded by two consuls who rotate command daily and are terribly overconfident This battle is still studied in war colleges around the world Classic case of a smaller army being able to surround a larger armyHannibal opens the battle with his troops in an odd convex position – the center of his line bowed out toward the Romans When contact is made deliberately the center gives way until there is a straight line The Romans sensing victory push harder on the center until the Carthaginian line is now concave and rapidly filling with Romans The Carthaginian wings turn toward the center and now their cavalry swoops in and starts chopping up the Roman rear The Romans are now surrounded and although they have superior numbers only the soldiers on the perimeter can actually fight They see their peril and attempt to retreat but they can only move toward the center making it too dense to even raise their arms70000 Romans are killed and the rest are sold into slavery The road to Rome is wide open The Romans have no other army in Italy And here is where Hannibal reveals his fatal weaknessHe was afraid of urban warfare His father had been killed by a brick thrown from a roof He did send peacefeelers to Rome which were rejected and he did make a cavalry demonstration outside the walls of Rome but he made no attempt to besiege the city Instead he spent most of the next decade roaming and pillaging southern ItalyEventually the Romans wised up and invaded Tunisia This is when Hannibal is recalled to Carthage He and Scipio Africanus meet at Zama and for the first time Hannibal loses a battle The Carthaginians sue for peace This time they lose all their overseas possessions have a fifty year indemnity to pay and are truncated into a minor city stateOddly enough the two national heroes – Hannibal and Scipio suffer similar fates They both become leaders of their cities and they are both driven into exile Hannibal wanders the Middle East constantly trying to stir up war against Rome He is finally cornered in Bythnia northeastern Turkey and commits suicide before his host can turn him over to the RomansFor the next fifty years Carthage becomes a loyal Roman client state providing transport for her armies and never missing an indemnity payment The city continues to be wealthy and prospers through tradeCertain elements in Rome however keep beating the drum for war with Carthage – mainly to eliminate the potential for an enemy to redevelop there When the Romans park an army outside of the city a delegation is sent to their camp to see if there is ANY way a war can be avoided The Roman terms the people have to move inland 18 miles “Carthage will always be a menace if it has access to the sea” The Carthaginians reject these terms and undergo a three year siege Like most sieges the population is uickly reduced to starvationCarthage had built a magnificent dual harbor – a rectangular outer commercial harbor with warehouses and hundreds of uays and a circular inner military harbor with cranes and dry docks for 170 ships They had excavated 250000 tons of hard rock to build these facilitiesThe final Roman assault was an amphibious attack and instead of stopping at the outer harbor sailed directly into the military harbor where they were able to gain a foothold and take the agora For three days against feeble resistance the Romans slaughter the people of Carthage as they inexorably burn and dismantle the city The Roman general rotates his troops to prevent them from going mad at the unrelenting slaughterFinally a delegation surrenders the remaining population 50000 men women and children are led away into a life of miserable slavery Carthage had a pre war population of 700000There were some holdouts The Carthaginian general and about 900 soldiers holed up in the citadel for weeks until starvation drove the general to desperation He deserts his troops and surrenders to the Roman general When his men realize they’ve been betrayed they set fire to the citadel The Carthaginian general’s wife stands on top of the citadel and sees her husband kneeling at the feet of the Roman general She screams every foul curse there is at her husband kills their children and throws them into the fire before jumping in herselfThe Roman general was ordered to raze Carthage to the ground after his army had completed its looting and a curse was placed on the location Thus ended the great city of Carthage after 700 years – half of which was spent as a maritime superpower Coincidentally Rome also destroyed Corinth in Greece in the same year another ancient and proud city This was a warning to the rest of the MediterraneanAnd now as Paul Harvey used to say we get to the rest of the story1 120 years after its destruction Augustus decides to build a Roman colony on the site He is the first Roman emperor and he has thousands of discharged veteran soldiers to deal with so his new city is going to be one of their retirement homes The reborn Roman Carthage soon becomes a major city of the empire and the regional capital in North Africa2 What goes around comes around 600 years after its destruction by the Romans the western Roman empire is tottering They have been beset by barbarian invaders and one of the cruelest is the Vandals After a multi generational trek from Sweden through Germany France and Spain they ultimately settle in North Africa with Carthage as their capitalDuring one of the dying empire’s coups the emperor is killed and the usurper forces his widow to marry him She secretly sends a message to Genseric king of the Vandals in Carthage appealing for his help and promising to marry HIM if he will only kill this asshole Genseric responds by uickly sending a fleet to Rome He kills the usurper and gets his wife but he also gets his rewardIn an orgy of slaughter he decimates the population For two weeks the vandals loot and burn Rome When he leaves he takes with him thousands of their leading citizens to live a life of slavery Rome never recovers and the empire is dead shortly thereafter